Kabupaten Bandung Formed
Bandung city as we know, in fact, was previously a lake called Danau Bandung. If we are at the top of a mountain around Bandung we can see that the area looks like a bowl. No wonder, this region once became a big lake when Citarum River had been blocked by lava.
For centuries, the lake water had decreased and forest grew up in it. In this place Kabupaten Bandung was then formed and finally Bandung city was born as the part of the region.
Bandung region had been well-known as “Tatar Ukur” before Kabupaten Bandung was formed. It was based on the script Sadjarah Bandung, Tatar Ukur included Timbanganten Kingdom region, with Tegalluar as the Capital City. This kingdom was under the domination of Sunda-Pajajaran Kingdom. Since middle of 15th century, Timbanganten Kingdom was led monarchically by Prabu Pandaan Ukur, Dipati Agung, and Dipati Ukur. When Dipati Ukur took the throne, Tatar Ukur was a wide region, including a big part of West Java which consisted of nine regions called “Ukur Sasanga.”
After Sunda-Pajajaran Kingdom was defeated by Banten Kingdom Army who brought Islam to West Java in 1579/1580, Tatar Ukur became one of Sumedanglarang Kingdom regions. Sumedanglarang Kingdom was the next kingdom after Sunda-Pajajaran, formed by Prabu Geusan Ulun in 1580 with Kutamaya as the Capital City, a region located in the west of Sumedang. The administrative regions included a region, called Priangan, except Galuh (Ciamis now).
When Sumedanglarang was led by Raden Suriadiwangsa,a stepson of Geusan Ulun with Ratu Harisbaya, Sumedanglarang had become one of administrative region of Mataram since 1620. Then, Sumedanglarang changed its state becoming Kabupaten Sumedang. Then Mataram made Priangan became its defense region on the west to protect them against Banten and Dutch attacks. Mataram, that time, was led by Sultan Agung (1613-1645). To have control on Priangan, Sultan Agung assigned Raden Aria Suradiwangsa to become Bupati Wedana on Priangan (1620-1624), with his great name as Pangeran Rangga Gempol Kusumadinata and well-known as Rangga Gempol I.
In 1624, Sultan Agung asked Rangga Gempol I to defeat Sampang (Madura). Then, Bupati Wedana position was given to Rangga Gempol’s I younger-brother, Pangeran Dipati Rangga Gede. No longer, Sumedang was attacked by Banten Kingdom Army. Pangeran Rangga Gede could not defeat them and he was punished and jailed in Mataram. Bupati Wedana position would be given to Dipati Ukur in condition that he could take over Batavia from Dutch.
In 1628 Sultan Agung asked Dipati Ukur to help Mataram Army attack the Dutch in Batavia. But the attack was unsuccessful. Dipati Ukur realized the consequence of his failure was that he would be punished by Mataram. So, Dipati Ukur betrayed Mataram and he was then considered as a rebel which had to be fought out. Based on Sejarah Sumedang (babad), Dipati Ukur was arrested in Lumbung Mountain (Bandung) as a traitor in 1632.
Then Sultan Agung gave Bupati Wedana Priangan position to Pangeran Dipati Rangga Gede who had been released from his punishment. Then, the government reorganized the systems to stabilize situation and condition in Priangan. Priangan region, except Sumedang and Galuh, was divided into three Kabupaten: Kabupaten Bandung, Kabupaten Parakanmuncang, and Kabupaten Sukapura by assigning three region leaders from Priangan who had had devotion in arresting Dipati Ukur.
The three leaders were Ki Astamanggala (Cihaurbeuti leader) who became Bupati (governor) Bandung with his great name Tumenggung Wiraangunangun; Tanubaya who became Bupati Parakanmuncang; and Ngabehi Wirawangsa who became Bupati Sukapura with his great name Tumenggung Wiradadaha. These three people became Bupati to be based on “Piagam Sultan Agung” which were sworn in on Saturday 9 Muharram Taun Alip (read. Alip year – Javanese Calendar). By the way, not only did that day become the birth of Kabupaten Bandung but Kabupaten Sukapura and Kabupaten Parakanmuncang as well.
Then, the three leaders came back to their regions. Based on Sadjarah Bandung, Tumenggung Wiraangunangun and his people came back to Tatar Ukur. He built Krapyak, a region located on the side of Citarum River nearby the up-river of Cikapundung River (Dayeuh Kolot now). Then, Krapyak and the regions nearby are called Bumi Ukur Gede.
Administrative region of Kabupaten Bandung under Mataram domination (until the end of 17th century) had not been known yet. No literature covered any information about this statement. According to people who have lived in Bandung for years, administrative region of Kabupaten Bandung covers Tatar Ukur, Timbanganten, Kuripan, Sagaraherang, and Tanahmedang.
Priangan region outside Kabupaten Sumedang, Parakanmuncang, Sukapura and Galuh that the first time became Tatar Ukur region (Ukur Sasanga) might be as administrative region of Kabupaten Bandung that time. If this statement was right, Kabupaten Bandung with the capital in Krapyak, would have administrative regions as Timbanganten, Gandasoli, Adiarsa, Cabangbungin, Banjaran, Cipeujeuh, Majalaya, Cisondari, Rongga, Kopo, Ujungberung and any other neighboring areas, including Kuripan, Sagaraherang and Tanahmedang.
Kabupaten Bandung as one of Kabupaten which was formed by Mataram and under Mataram domination, also had Mataram government systems. Its Bupati had various great symbols, like special guard and army. The symbols and attributes added their power greater and stronger. Kabupaten Bandung had been under Mataram domination until the end of 1677 then it fell into Dutch. It happened when Mataram and Dutch signed an agreement on October 19-20, 1677. Bupati still had their position as the leader under the power of Dutch (1677-1799).
Basically,the governmental systems of Kabupaten did not change, because the Dutch only claimed Bupati to accept their power and give them specific crops as the guarantee. In the mean time, Bupati might not have any political relations with another party. There was only one thing to change, Bupati Wedana position was taken over and the Dutch assigned Pangeran Aria Cirebon to become the controller (opzigter)of Cirebon-Priangan region (Cheribonsche Preanger landan).
One of Bupati,s main duties was to hold specific farming, especially coffee, and give the crops to the Dutch. The planting system was called Preangerstelsel. On the other side, Bupati had to control their regions. Bupati might not appoint or fire their employers without any statement from Dutch leader in Cirebon. In order to make Bupati keep on the rules, Bupati,s influences on religion sections including their earning on the sections such as holy charity were not disturbed. Bupati and people (farmer) earned some money for their efforts in planting coffee.
Until the end of VOC-Dutch government in the end 1779, Kabupaten Bandung had a capital in Krapyak. For the whole time, Kabupaten Bandung was led monarchically by six Bupatis:
- Tumenggung Wiraangunangun (first Bupati until 1681)
- Tumenggung Ardikusumah (1681-1704)
- Tumenggung Anggadireja I (1704-1747)
- Tumenggung Anggadireja II (1747-1763)
- Tumenggung Anggadireja III with his great name R.A. Wiranatakusumah I (1763-1794)
- R. A. Wiranatakusumah II (1794-1829)
Bupati R. A. Wiranatakusumah II changed the capital of Kabupaten Bandung from Krapyak to Bandung city when he became the leader.
Taking from http://iwan1772.blogspot.com/2009/08/sejarah-bandung.html with changes
Written by Sobana Hardjasaputra
From book entitled “Kota-Kota Lama di Jawa Barat”
Published by Alqaprint Jatinangor
Reporter: Pramukti Adhi Bhakti